Symptoms,diagnosis and treatment of Arthritis

  • Shivani Tyagi
  • June 1, 2019

Arthritis is an inflammation of one or more of one’s joints associated with pain, swelling, and stiffness in the affected joint. The disease can spread to any part in the body, but it is particularly common in the knee.

Types Of Arthritis

Osteoarthritis :

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the knee joint. Arthritis occurs most often in people 50 years of age and older but may occur in younger people, too. In osteoarthritis, the cartilage in the knee joint gradually wears away as are the result of inflammatory changes in the joint. As the cartilage wears away, it becomes tattered and rough, and the protective space between the bones decreases. The outcome in rubbing of bones against each other. Hence, causing sharp pain in joints. Over time, the bones often grow thicker, and this results in more friction and more pain. Osteoarthritis develops slowly and the pain it induces worsens over time.

knee osteoarthritis image MTC
Rheumatoid arthritis :

Rheumatoid arthritis a fatal disease that attacks multiple joints throughout the body, it usually affects the same joint on both sides of the body. That means if your right knee is hurting then your left knee is also hurting. In this type of arthritis the synovial membrane or synovial stratum which covers the knee joint begins to swell, This results in knee pain and stiffness.

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease. This means that the immune system attacks its own tissues. The immune system destroys normal tissue (such as cartilage and ligaments) and softens the bone, called inflammatory arthritis, the membrane around the knee joint to become thick and inflamed. Chronic inflammation damages the cartilage, causing soreness and stiffness.

Post Traumatic Arthritis :

Posttraumatic Arthritis is a form of arthritis that develops after an injury to any joint. The major cause of Posttraumatic Arthritis could be sports, a vehicle accident, a fall, a military injury, or any other source of physical trauma. For example, a car accident which broke your bone may damage the joint surface and lead to arthritis after the injury. Meniscal tears and ligament injuries can causes instability on the knee joint, which over time can result in arthritis.

Symptoms of Osteoarthritis Knee Joint

A knee joint affected by arthritis may be painful and inflamed. Generally, the pain develops gradually over time, although sudden onset is also possible. There are other symptoms, as well:

  • Tenderness around the knee
  • Limited range of motion
  • Instability of the joint
  • Crepitus (creak, click, snap or make a grinding noise) with movement
  • You feel pain when weight is placed on the knee
  • Problems with your gait (the way you walk)
  • The joints become stiff and swollen, making it difficult to bend and straighten the knee.
  • You will feel unbearable Pain and swelling in the morning, or after sitting or resting for a long period of time.
  • Activities which are putting pressure on knee can elevate the pain
  • Loose fragments of cartilage and other tissue can intervene with the smooth motion of joints. The knee may “lock” or “stick” during movement.
  • Pain may cause a feeling of weakness or buckle in the knee.
  • Rainy weather may also be the reason for more pain.

Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis Knee Joint

Symptoms and medical history through a physical examination, and Imaging Tests like X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, a computed tomography (CT) scan, to determine the condition of the bone and soft tissues of your knee.

Laboratory Tests: rheumatoid arthritis, blood tests will help with a proper diagnosis.

Treatment options of Osteoarthritis Knee Joint

There are many treatment options available to help manage pain and disability it can cause, helping people staying active.

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Nonsurgical Treatment:

A variety of treatment options available are:

  1. Lifestyle modifications : Some changes in your everyday life will shield your ginglymus and slow the progress of the inflammatory disease.
    • Avoid activities like ascension stairs.
    • Switching from activities like cardiopulmonary exercise or lawn tennis to love swimming or sport can place less stress on your knee.
    • Losing weight will cut back stress on the ginglymus, leading to less pain and magnified operate.
  2. Physiotherapy : Specific exercises will facilitate increase vary of motion and suppleness, moreover as facilitating strengthen the muscles in your leg. The therapist will facilitate develop an associate individualized exercise program that meets your wants and style.
  3. Assistive devices : exploitation devices like a cane, sporting shock-absorbing shoes or inserts or sporting a brace or knee sleeve are often useful.
    Medications many forms of medication are helpful in treating the inflammatory disease of the knee.
Surgical Treatment

Surgery is suggested if the pain from inflammatory disease causes incapacity and isn’t mitigated with medical procedure treatment.

Types of surgery

  1. Arthroscopy: Arthroscopic surgery isn’t usually wont to treat the inflammatory disease of the knee. it’s a surgical operation wherever the doctor puts endoscope a camera to treat the broken joint. Arthroscopic surgery is wise to treat the torn cartilage. A torn cartilage could be a medical condition wherever tissue within the knee is affected & is caused by forceful twisting.
  2. Cartilage attachment: It could be a surgical operation performed on broken tissue. New tissue is taken from either the knee or different tissue from the tissue bank. this can be done to fill the gap within the body part gristle. it’s wise for younger patients to travel through this surgery as they need little areas of gristle injury.
  3. Synovectomy: The joint lining broken by autoimmune disease is removed to cut back pain and swelling.
  4. Osteotomy: In a knee surgical process, either the leg bone (shinbone) or leg bone (thighbone) is cut so reshaped to alleviate pressure on the hinge joint. Knee surgical process is employed after you have early-stage degenerative arthritis that has broken only 1 facet of the hinge joint. By shifting your weight off the broken facet of the joint, AN surgical process will relieve pain and considerably improve operate in your rheumatoid knee.
  5. Knee replacement (arthroplasty) : Your doctor will remove the damaged cartilage and bone, and then position new metal or plastic joint surfaces to restore the function of your knee. Knee replacement surgery is of different types, Knee replacement can be total or partial:

    Partial knee replacement (PKR) :

    Partial replacement replaces only one side of the knee joint. Less bone is removed, so the incision is smaller, but it does not last as long as a total replacement. Partial knee replacement (PKR): Partial replacement replaces only one side of the knee joint. Less bone is removed, so the incision is smaller, but it does not last as long as a total replacement. Advisable to people with damage to only one part of the knee

    Total knee replacement (TKR) :

    Knee cap surgery involves the replacement of both sides of the knee joint. It is the most common procedure. The procedure is carried out with the removal of the damaged cartilage and bone, and then position the new implant, made of metal, plastic, or both, to restore the alignment and function of the knee.

What is Knee replacement Surgery & Why it is useful :

Knee replacement is a kind of arthroplasty.

Arthroplasty is meant by repairing the joint and this procedure involves reconstruction and replacement of degenerated joints, using artificial body parts, or prosthetics. With a prosthesis or implant, the patient will feel less pain, and the knee will move properly.

Knee replacement surgery can help relieve pain and restore function in severely diseased knee joints. The procedure involves cutting away damaged bone and cartilage from your thighbone, shinbone, and kneecap and replacing it with an artificial joint (prosthesis/ implant) made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics, and polymers.

In determining whether a knee replacement (TKR) is right for you, an orthopedic surgeon assesses your knee’s range of motion, stability, and strength. X-rays help determine the extent of the damage. Your doctor has a variety of choices for knee replacement viz., prosthesis/knee or replacement implants and surgical techniques, considering your age, weight, activity level, knee size and shape, and overall health.

Knee replacement surgery requires general anesthesia

Duration of the procedure : 2-3 hours
Length of stay in hospital : 4-5 days
Results : Knee replacements are responsible for pain relief, improved mobility and a better quality of life.  Life of knee replacement is 15 years or more.

After Surgery

You can expect to be up on your feet within a day.  you may need parallel bars, crutches, a walker, or a cane for a while to get up. The day after surgery, a physiotherapist will show you how to exercise your new knee. After you leave the hospital, you’ll continue physiotherapy at home or at a center.

It is advised to do your exercises regularly, as instructed. The best recovery will come only if you, follow instructions to take care, concerning wound care, diet & exercise. This will help you in improving quickly, increase your pliability and much less pain within a month.

You might need help from a physical therapist, who will go through a series of exercises to strengthen your repaired knee.

Who might need a knee replacement?

Knee surgery may be suitable for patients who experience:

  • Severe knee pain or stiffness that makes it hard for you to walk, climb stairs and getting up from resting position.
  • continuous knee pain even while sleeping
  • Chronic knee inflammation and swelling do not get better after taking medications or resting
  • Knee deformity, when an arch is noticed on the inside or outside areas of the knee
  • Physiotherapy and medication haven’t helped.

If the other available treatment options have not worked, surgery may be the best option.

Recovery of Total Knee Replacement

Three to six weeks, pt can resume daily activities.

Recovering at home
  • Recovery time can be up to 3 months after a knee replacement surgical procedure.
  • It will take 6 weeks to drive again, and return to work after 6 to 8 weeks. Physical therapy may be provided for 3 months.
  • Patients must comply with the instructions given by doctors, nurses and the physical therapist.
The patient may be asked:
  • Not to bend down and lift heavy things, at least for the first few weeks
  • Not to stand still for long periods, as the ankles might swell
  • To use crutches, a walking stick, or a walker until the knee is strong enough to take your body weight
  • To use all medications according to the instructions
  • To exercise daily as advised by the doctors
  • Cover your scar while bathing until it is completely healed, because of the risk of infection
  • Ensuring there is a secure handrail and using a stable, nonslip bench or chair in the shower
  • Securing any loose carpets and removing wrinkly mats around the house
  • Removing or securing any trip hazards, such as loose wires
  • Avoid stair climbing initially.
  • Arrange for a toilet-seat riser with if you have a low toilet.

Risks and complications

Total knee replacements have low complication rates.

Possible complications include:
  • Continued pain or stiffness
  • Allergic reaction to the bone cement
  • Excess scar tissue restricts the movement of the knee
  • Instability of the kneecap, resulting in painful dislocation to the outer side of the knee

Artificial knees can wear out There is a risk which we can’t ignore and that is Artificial knees can wear out easily. knee replacement surgery is a failure of the artificial joint. Daily usage of the artificial knee can wear on even the strongest metal and plastic parts. higher risk is involved if you stress the joint with high-impact activities or excessive weight.

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