When the cells in the breast tissue alter called mutation and multiply rapidly, these abnormal cells form a tumor in breast tissue. A tumour is non-cancerous but can become cancerous when these abnormally growing cells spread to other parts of the breast or the body.

It begins in the milk-producing glands or in the tube-shaped ducts that carry milk from the glands to the nipple. Sometimes, it begins taking shape in the fatty and fibrous connective tissue of the breasts.

One of the leading causes of cancer-related death of women globally is Breast cancer. But the latest advancements in treatment options for cancer have reduced the mortality rates in last few years.


A woman may show the following signs and symptoms in case of breast cancer:

  • Discrepancies in the size and appearance of the nipple
  • Permanent stains on the breast
  • Lumps in breast
  • Yellow, brown or red discharge from nipple
  • Swelling under the arm or under collarbone
  • Unusual redness on breast
  • Skin irritation around the breast region
  • Itchiness around the breast region


Tumor within the breast begins with a alteration within the polymer of carcinoma cells.

Some of these mutations may develop randomly over time.

Naturally, the build to perpetually change and fix itself.

When there is an inhibition in the body’s ability to mutate itself, a tumor occurs. Some mutations are hereditary while others are irregular.

The tumor in the breast stages from 0 to 4. Staging helps an expert to determine the plan of treatment.

Stage 0 – The cancer cells are only in the duct or lobule where they began and have not grown into the nearby breast tissue. Tumor at this stage is also known as in situ breast cancer.

Early-stage breast cancer – The tumor is smaller than 5 cm and cancer has not spread to more than 3 lymph nodes.

Locally advanced stage – The tumor is larger than 5 cm and cancer has spread to more than 3 lymph nodes.

Metastatic stage or most advanced stage of breast cancer – cancer has spread to alternative components of the body.

Causes of breast cancer

  • Family history
  • Genetic abnormalities
  • Dense breasts
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Being overweight or being obese
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Smoking
  • Exposure to radiation
  • History of hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Breast Cancer screening or how to diagnose breast cancer

Screening for breast cancer include:

  1. Screening mammogram: A mammogram is an X-ray of the breast.
  2. Clinical examination: An examination for breast lumps and around the chest and underarms
  3. Breast MRI: for women with high-risk genes.
  4. Diagnostic mammogram
  5. Breast ultrasonography (USG)
  6. Biopsy: A gold standard test for cancer diagnosis, the process involves extorting tumor tissues using a needle. Specialists then examine the tissues under a microscope in a laboratory.

Treatment options for breast cancer

Surgery :
This form of treatment involves mastectomy i.e. complete removal of the breast or lumpectomy i.e. tumor removal preserving the breast.

This mode of cancer treatment involves the usage of intense radiation for killing off cancerous cells. In most cases, radiotherapy is a follow-up treatment after successful mastectomy.

This form of treatment involves the usage of blood vessel medication administration for killing off cancerous cells.

Hormonal Therapy
An extremely focused treatment variant for the hormone receptors that are either ER or PR positive. However, the final hormone choice depends on our menopausal status.

Targeted Therapy
This is a cancer treatment strategy that involves targeting specific proteins and genes, located within the cancerous region of an existing tumor.

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