HOW MALE INFERTILITYIS CAUSED DUE TO OLIGOSPERMIA OR LOW (POOR) SPERM COUNT
When a couple is unable to conceive over a course of one year of constantly trying are diagnosed as infertile couple.Both partners are equally responsible for infertility. When a Man is the sole reason for the infertility, it is known as Male infertility.
WHAT IS SPERM DISORDER OR SPERM ABNORMALITY?
Sperm abnormality is one of the main reasons causing Male infertility. The type of sperm abnormality of sperm disorder can vary from low count to their movement. Male infertility can sometimes be caused by :
- low or poor sperm count
- low sperm motility
- low semen volume
- issues related to sperm morphology
HOW TO DIAGNOSE LOW SPERM COUNT IN A MAN?
We at the medical treatment centre, India believe that a thorough examination and exact diagnosis by our Top Andrologists and Male infertility specialists in Delhi is primarily required to plan a line of treatment resolving fertility issues.
Various tests are required to diagnose Male infertility including Hormonal tests, family history, semen analysis, semen test in Delhi, India, Varicocele (enlarged vein in scrotum).
WHAT DOES SEMEN TEST ANALYSE?
Volume: 2 millilitres is the unit which is considered as the normal volume of semen. A lower amount than 2 indicates an issue with the ejaculatory ducts or seminal vesicles.
Motility: Indicates that what number of active sperms are moving. Normally 50% or more of total sperm volume should be motile. Less than 50% of motile sperms indicate an abnormality in sperm.
Morphology: refers to the shape of the sperm. 30% sperms in good shape are considered as a normal number, less than 30% affects the ability of sperm to fertilize an egg.
Concentration: Normal range of sperm count in a Man’s semen is20 million to 300 million per millilitre and below 10 million is considered low or poor count or termed as oligospermia.
Appearance: Colour of the sperm indicates if there is any presence of blood due to the side effect of any medications or supplements.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF LOW OR POOR SPERM COUNT OR SPERM ABNORMALITIES IN SEMEN?
- Poor dietary habits
- Lack of physical exercises
- Inflammation of the testicles
- Swollen veins in the scrotum called varicocele
- Abnormally developed testicles or absent testicle or undescended testicle
- Genetic condition
- Overconsumption of alcohol
- Hernia repairs
- A hormonal disorder like low testosterone
- Exposure to radiation
- Wearing restrictive or tight underwear
- Injury to the groin area
- Problems with ejaculation like:
- Premature ejaculation
- Retrograde ejaculation, a condition when the semen retracts back into the bladder
- Erection dysfunctions
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR LOW OR POOR SPERM COUNT IN DELHI, INDIA?
Traditional methods to cure low sperm count are:
- Medicines to help increase sperm production
- Antibiotics to heal an infection
- Hormone supplements to improve hormone imbalance
- Avoid wearing tight underwear
In case when these medicines and lifestyle modifications do not help in treating low sperm count, man is encouraged to provide his semen sample. When he is unable to produce any sperm in ejaculation or discharge then various sperm retrieval techniques are used to get the sperm.
The retrieved sperm is cultured in the laboratory and the couple is recommended to go ahead with assisted reproductive treatments like Artificial insemination (ICSI)and IVF (In-Vitro Fertilization).
VARIOUS SPERM RETRIEVAL TECHNIQUES AVAILABLE AT MEDICAL TREATMENT CENTRE, DELHI, INDIA ARE:
MESA (Microsurgical Epididymal sperm aspiration): is a daycare procedure involving microsurgical techniques to remove small samples of epididymal tissue making efforts to extract sperm from the tissue.
PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal sperm aspiration): it is carried out in local anaesthesia using a small needle which is inserted through the skin of the scrotum to collect sperm from the epididymis (sperm is stored in epididymis).
TESA (Testicular sperm aspiration): It is performed under local anaesthesia in an operating room using a needle which is inserted in the testicle and sperm are extracted from the tissue.
Micro TESE (Microsurgical testicular extraction of sperm): Micro TESEis a surgical procedure which is carried out in general anaesthesia (or spinal anaesthesia at times ) in an equipped operation theatre using an excellent resolution microscope (Carl Zeiss microscope).The Andrologist or Male infertility specialist look at the testicles with the help of microscope in efforts to find multiple samples of quality semen. These samples are then processed in the ART laboratory for the presence of sperms. It is the most advanced procedure for sperm retrieval in cases of low, poor or even zero sperm count.
Vasectomy Reversal: Vasectomy reversal is a microsurgical procedure that reverses the vasectomy procedure, means reconnects the male reproductive tract (vas deferens) that were cut during the vasectomy surgery. Once the tubes are re-joined, the sperm gets the path to flow through the urethra.
Varicocele surgery or Microsurgical varicocelectomy: It is microsurgery done in general or spinal anaesthesia to remove the enlarged veins in scrotum obstructing the sperm flow.
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